Dr. Sutton’s

Roman Coin Legend Translation

 

            Welcome Numismatists, Classicists, Students of History, and Lovers of Latin!

 

The primary goal of this website is to catalogue and translate every name, term, and abbreviation that occurs on any Roman Imperial coin.  The secondary goal is to catalogue and translate every complete obverse legend that occurs on any Roman Imperial coin.  Both goals are incomplete, and may remain so in perpetuity, but progress is being made.  If you know of anything to add to the lists, please let me know.  I may include Roman Provincial (a.k.a. Greek Imperial) coins in the distant future, but at the moment I’m focusing on coins with Latin Legends.

 

Feel free to visit my ebay store to see what coins I have for sale at the moment: Dr. Sutton’s ebay Store

 

Enjoy!

Peter Sutton

Email (without the spaces): dr . sutton . coins @ gmail . com

 

Glossary of Terms, Names, and Abbreviations*

 

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

 

Legend

Latin

English Translation(s)

Comments & Pictures

A

Aurelius

Aurelius

Name (See MAVR) C

 

 

 

 

ABVNDANTIA

Abundantia

Abundance

Often personified with multiple cornucopiae

 

 

 

 

ADLOCVT

Adlocutio

Speech, Address

 

 

 

 

 

ADVENT

Advento

Arrives

 

 

 

 

 

ADVENTVS

Adventus

[an] arrival

 

 

 

 

 

AEL         

Aelia

Aelia

Feminine name

 

 

 

 

AELIVS     

Aelius

Aelius                 

Caesar under Hadrian 

 

 

 

 

AEMILIANVS   

Aemilianus

Aemilian                

Emperor 235

 

 

 

 

AEQVITAS

Aequitas

Fairness

Personified with scales and a cornucopia

 

 

 

 

AETERN

Aeternitas

Eternity

 

 

 

 

 

AETERNA

Aeterna

Eternal

image

 

 

 

 

AETERNIT

Aeternitas

Eternity

Personified with various devices: scepter, globe, phoenix, etc

 

 

 

 

AETERNITAS

Aeternitas

Eternity

Personified with various devices: scepter, globe, phoenix, etc

 

 

 

 

AGRIPPINA

Agrippina

Agrippina

Feminine name

 

 

 

 

AGRIPPINA

Agrippinae

The Agrippinas

Feminine names

 

 

 

 

ALBIN

Albinus

Albinus

Name

 

 

 

 

ALBINVS

Albinus

Albinus

Name

 

 

 

 

ALLECTVS

Allectus

Allectus

Emperor in Britain 293-296

 

 

 

 

AN

Annius

Annius

Name

 

 

 

 

ANN

Annius

Annius

Name

 

 

 

 

ANNIA

Annia

Annia

Feminine Name, e.g. Anni Faustina

 

 

 

 

ANNIAN

Annia

Annia

Feminine Name, e.g. Anni Faustina

 

 

 

 

ANNONA

Annona

Harvest

Personified as a woman with grain and a ship's prow

 

 

 

 

ANT

Antonius

Antony

Name

 

 

 

 

ANTON

Antoninus

Antoninus

Name

 

 

 

 

ANTONIA

Antonia

Antonia

Feminine Name, Mother of Claudius

 

 

 

 

ANTONINVS

Antoninus

Antoninus

Name

 

 

 

 

ANTONINVS

Antoninus

Antoninus Pius, Caracalla, Elagabalus

Emperors 183-161, 209-217, 218-222

 

 

 

 

ANTONINI

Antoninus

Antoninus

Name

 

 

 

 

APOL       

Apollo

Apollo            

God of the sun, healing, prophecy, and music

 

 

 

 

APOLINI

Apollo

Apollo            

God of the sun, healing, prophecy, and music

 

 

 

 

APOLL

Apollo

Apollo            

God of the sun, healing, prophecy, and music

 

 

 

 

APOLLININ

Apollo

Apollo            

God of the sun, healing, prophecy, and music

 

 

 

 

AQVILIA

Aquilia

Aquilia

Feminine Name, e.g. Aquilia Severa

 

 

 

 

ARCADIVS

Arcadius

Arcadius

Emperor 383-408

 

 

 

 

ARTIS

Artis

Arts, esp. metalwork

 

 

 

 

 

AVG

Augustus

Emperor (or Empress)

Full emperor, as opposed to just Caesar. image  VC

 

 

 

 

AVG

Augustus

The Revered Emperor

Emperor 27 BC - AD 14, also a name taken by many other emperors

 

 

 

 

AVGV

Augustus

The Revered Emperor

Emperor 27 BC - AD 14

 

 

 

 

AVGVS

Augustus

The Revered Emperor

See AVG

 

 

 

 

AVGVST

Augustus

The Revered Emperor

See AVG

 

 

 

 

AVGVSTAE

Augustae

The Reversed Empresses

See AVG (entry 1)

 

 

 

 

AVGVSTI

Augusti

The Revered Emperors

See AVG

 

 

 

 

AVGVSTO

Augustus

[for/from] The Revered Emperor

See AVG

 

 

 

 

AVGVSTORVM

Augustorum

[of the ] Emperors

See AVG (entry 1)

 

 

 

 

AVGVSTVS

Augustus

The Revered Emperor

See AVG

 

 

 

 

AVGG

Duo Augusti

The Two Emperors

Romans pluralized on coins by repeating letters. image  C

 

 

 

 

AVGGG

Terci Augusti

The Three Emperors

Romans pluralized on coins by repeating letters.

 

 

 

 

AVR

Aurelius

Aurelius

Name, see MAVR

 

 

 

 

AVRELIANVS

Aurelianus

Aurelian

Emperor 270-275 image

 

 

 

 

AVRELIVS

Aurelius

Aurelius

Name, see MAVR

 

 

 

 

AVREL

Aurelius

Aurelius

Name, see MAVR

 

 

 

 

AVREOLVS

Aureolus

Aureolus

Military Commander and usurper

 

 

 

 

BALBINVS

Balbinus

Balbinus

Emperor 238

 

 

 

 

bASILISCI

Basiliscus

Basiliscus

Emperor 475-476 (Note the lower-case 'b')

 

 

 

 

bASILISCVS

Basiliscus

Basiliscus

Emperor 475-476 (Note the lower-case 'b')

 

 

 

 

BEA

Beatus

Blessed

 

 

 

 

 

BEAT

Beatus

Blessed

 

 

 

 

 

BAEATISSIMO

Baeatissimo

Most Blessed

Misspelling of Beatissimo found on some Diocletian coins 

 

 

 

 

BIS

Bis

Twice

 

 

 

 

 

BONIEVENTVS

Boni Eventus

[of] Good Luck

Usually portrayed with grain or a cornucopia

 

 

 

 

BONOSVS

Bonosus

Bonosus

Usurper c. 280

 

 

 

 

BRIT

Britannicus

Conqueror of the Britons

 

 

 

 

BRITANN

Britannia

Britain

 

 

 

 

 

BRITANNI

Britannia

Britain

 

 

 

 

 

BRITANNICVS

Britannicus

Britannicus

Son of Claudius, murdered by Nero at the age of 13

 

 

 

 

C

Caesar

Caesar

see CAES image VC

 

 

 

 

C

Consul

Consul

see COS C

 

 

 

 

C

Gaius (or Caius)

Gaius (or Caius)

Name

 

 

 

 

C

Consulto

By Decree of...

VC in SC

 

 

 

 

CAE

Caesar

Caesar

see CAES

 

 

 

 

CAEL

Caelius

Caelius

Name

 

 

 

 

CAES

Caesar

Caesar

An Emperor’s chosen successor, a “vice-emperor.” Also a name for any emperor.  VC

 

 

 

 

CAESAR

Caesar

Caesar

see CAES

 

 

 

 

CAESARI

Caesar

Caesar

see CAES

 

 

 

 

CAESARIS

Caesaris

[of] Caesar

see CAES

 

 

 

 

CAESARVM

Caesarum

Caesar

See CAES image

 

 

 

 

CAESS

Duo Caesares

The Two Caesars

Romans pluralized on coins by repeating letters.

 

 

 

 

CAESSS

Terci Caesares

The Three Caesars

Romans pluralized on coins by repeating letters.

 

 

 

 

CAPITOLINVS

Capitolinus

The Capitoline

A hill in Rome, or the temple to Jupiter on that hill.

 

 

 

 

CAPTA

Captas

[is] Captured

 

 

 

 

 

CARAVSIVS

Carausius

Carausius

Emperor 287-293

 

 

 

 

CARINVS

Carinus

Carinus

Emperor 283-285

 

 

 

 

CARO

Carus

Carus

See CARVS

 

 

 

 

CARPICA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CARVS

Carus

Carus

Emperor 282-283

 

 

 

 

CENSP

Censor Perpetuus

Eternal Censor

An official who determines population and citizenship.

 

 

 

 

CENSPERP

Censor Perpetuus

Eternal Censor

see CENSP

 

 

 

 

CERES

Ceres

Ceres

Goddess of Agriculture, often shown with grain and a torch

 

 

 

 

CIVES

Cives

Citizens

 

 

 

 

 

CIVIS

Civis

Citizen

 

 

 

 

 

CLARITAS

Claritas

Clarity of Mind, Fame

 

 

 

 

 

CLAVD

Claudius

Claudius

See CLAVDIVS

 

 

 

 

CLAVDIO

Claudius

Claudius

See CLAVDIVS

 

 

 

 

CLAVDIVS

Claudius

Claudius

Emperors 41-54, 268-270, also a forename C

 

 

 

 

CLEMENTIA

Clementia

Mercy

Personified with a branch and scepter

 

 

 

 

CLEMENTIAE

Clementiae

[of] Mercy

Personified with a branch and scepter

 

 

 

 

CLO

Clodius

Clodius

Name

 

 

 

 

CLOD

Clodius

Clodius

Name

 

 

 

 

CLODIVS

Clodius

Clodius

Name

 

 

 

 

CLODIVSALBINVS

Clodius Albinus

Clodius Albinus

Usurper 196-197

 

 

 

 

CO

Consul

Consul

See COS

 

 

 

 

COL

Colonia

Colony

As in "The colony of..." image

 

 

 

 

COMES

Comes

Companion

 

 

 

 

 

COMITI

Comito

[to] Accompany

Usually as in "[this god] accompanies [me]"

 

 

 

 

COMM

Commodus

Commodus

Emperor 177-192

 

 

 

 

COMMODO

Commodus

[for/from] Commodus

Emperor 177-192

 

 

 

 

COMMODVS

Commodus

Commodus

Emperor 177-192

 

 

 

 

CONCOR

Concordia

Concord (or Harmony)

See CONCORD

 

 

 

 

CONCORD

Concordia

Concord (or Harmony)

Woman with altar and patera (ritual drinking vessel)

 

 

 

 

CONCORDIA

Concordia

Concord (or Agreement)

See CONCORDIA MILITVM C

 

 

 

 

CONS

Consul

Consul

See COS

 

 

 

 

CONS

Conservator

Preserver

See CONSERV

 

 

 

 

CONSECRATIO

Consecratio

Consecration, Dedication

Often used in posthumous issues

 

 

 

 

CONSER

Conservator

Preserver

See CONSERV

 

 

 

 

CONSERV

Conservator

Preserver

As in “Preserver of…[the Republic, a city, etc.]”

 

 

 

 

CONSERVA

Conservator

Preserver

See CONSERV

 

 

 

 

CONSERVAT

Conservator

Preserver

See CONSERV

 

 

 

 

CONSERVATORI

Conservator

Preserver

See CONSERV C  image

 

 

 

 

CONSTANS

Constans

Constans

Emperor 337-350 C

 

 

 

 

CONSTANTIA

Constantia

Firmness

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTANTINOPOLIS

Constantinopolis

Constantinople

City, now Istanbul, Capitol of the Eastern Empire from Constantine on C

 

 

 

 

CONSTANTINVS

Constantinus

Constantine I, II, III

Emperors 306-337 VC, 337-340 VC, and 407-411 image

 

 

 

 

CONSTANTINI

Constantinus

Constantine I, II, III

Emperors 306-337 VC, 337-340 VC, and 407-411

 

 

 

 

CONSTANTIVS

Constanius

Constantius I, II, III

Emperors 305-306 VC, 337-361 image, and 421

 

 

 

 

CONSVLV

Consul

Consul

See COS

 

 

 

 

COR

Cornelius

Cornelius

Name

 

 

 

 

CORINTHI

Corinth

Corinth

A Greek City

 

 

 

 

CORNELSVPERA

Cornelia Supera

Cornelia Supera

Wife of Aemilianus

 

 

 

 

COS

Consul

Consul

A Roman Republican office a bit like president (in years) C

 

 

 

 

CRISPVS

Crispus

Crispus

Eldest son of Constantine the Great C

 

 

 

 

CS

Caesar

Caesar

see CAES

 

 

 

 

CVM

Cum

With

 

 

 

 

 

D

Dominus

Lord

Ruler (see DN) VC

 

 

 

 

D

Domitius

Domitius

Name

 

 

 

 

D

Decimus

Decimus

Name

 

 

 

 

DAC

Dacius

Conqueror of the Dacians

See DACIA

 

 

 

 

DACIA

Dacia

Dacia

Region largely overlapping present-day Romania

 

 

 

 

DAFNE

Daphne

Laurel

Symbolic of Victory

 

 

 

 

DD

Duo Domini

Two Lords

 

 

 

 

 

DDD

Terci Domini

Three Lords

 

 

 

 

 

DE

De

From

 

 

 

 

 

DEC

Decennalibus

[for] Ten Years

Often with VOTIS or VOTA

 

 

 

 

DECENNALIBVS

Decennalibus

[for] Ten Years

Often with VOTIS or VOTA

 

 

 

 

DECENTIVS

Decentius

Decentius

Usurper c. 353

 

 

 

 

DECIO

Decius

Decius

Name

 

 

 

 

DECIVS

Decius

Decius

Name

 

 

 

 

DELMATIVS

Delmatius

Delmatius

Caesar under Constantius II

 

 

 

 

DEO

Deus

God

 

 

 

 

 

DEOR

Deorum

[of the] Gods

 

 

 

 

 

DEORVM

Deorum

[of the] Gods

 

 

 

 

 

DES

Designatio

Appointment to an Office

Sometimes with ITER (i.e. reappointed)

 

 

 

 

DEV

Deus

God

 

 

 

 

 

DIANA

Dianae

[of] Diana

Virgin goddess of the moon and hunting, often portrayed with a bow and a torch.

 

 

 

 

DIANAE

Dianae

[of] Diana

Virgin goddess of the moon and hunting, often portrayed with a bow and a torch.

 

 

 

 

DIOCLETIANVS

Diocletianus

Diocletian

Emperor 284-305 image

 

 

 

 

DIV

Divus

Divine

A dead, consecrated emperor on posthumous coin issues. C

 

 

 

 

DIVI

Divus

Divine

See DIV

 

 

 

 

DIVO

Divus

Divine

See DIV C

 

 

 

 

DIVOS

Divos

Divine (pl.)

Used for multiple divine beings or dead emperors

 

 

 

 

DIVVS

Divus

Divine

See DIV

 

 

 

 

DN

Dominus Noster

Our Lord

Ruler of the people image VC

 

 

 

 

DOM

Domitius

Domitius

Name

 

 

 

 

DOMINO

Dominor

[to] Rule

 

 

 

 

 

DOMIT

Domitianus

Domitian

Emperor 81-96

 

 

 

 

DOMITIAN

Domitianus

Domitian

Emperor 81-96

 

 

 

 

DOMITIANVS

Domitianus

Domitian

Emperor 81-96

 

 

 

 

DOMITIVS DOMITIANVS

Domitius Domitianus

Domitius

Domitianus

Usurper c. 297

 

 

 

 

DRVSILLA

Drusilla

Drusilla

Feminine Name

 

 

 

 

DRVSVS

Drusus

Drusus

Caesar under Tiberius

 

 

 

DRYANTILLA

Dryantilla

Dryantilla

Wife of Regalianus

 

 

 

 

EQ

Equites

Cavalrymen

This can also refer to the equestrian class

 

 

 

 

EQVITAS

Equitatus

The Cavalry

This can also refer to the equestrian class

 

 

 

 

ERCVL

Hercules

Hercules

Half-god hero, shown with a club, bow and lion skin

 

 

 

 

ET

Et

And

 

 

 

 

 

ETR

Etruscus

Etruscus

Name

 

 

 

 

ETRVSCILLA

Etruscilla

Herennia Etruscilla

Wife of Trajan Decius

 

 

 

 

EVDOCIA

Eudocia

Eudocia

Wife of Theodosius II

 

 

 

 

EVGENIVS

Eugenius

Eugenius

Usurper c. 394

 

 

 

 

EX

Ex

From

 

 

 

 

 

EXERC

Exercitus

Army

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCIT

Exercitus

Army

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCITI

Exerciti

[of the] Army

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCITVVM

Exercituum

[of the] Armies

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCITVS

Exercitus

Army

image  VC (with GLORIA)

 

 

 

EXPECTATE

Expectate

Expected One

 

 

 

 

 

F

Filius

Son

As in “Son of…”

 

 

 

 

F

Femina

Woman

Often as part of NF

 

 

 

 

F

Felix

Happy (or Lucky)

See PF VC

 

 

 

 

F

Fulvius

Fulvius

Name

 

 

 

 

FATIS

Fata

The Fates (or Parcae)

 

 

 

 

 

FECVNDAE

Fecundae

Fecund, Fruitful

 

 

 

 

 

FECVNDITAS

Fecunditas

Fruitfulness

Often Personified with one or more Children

 

 

 

 

FEL

Felix

Happy (or Lucky)

See FEL TEMP REPARATIO VC

 

 

 

 

FELIC

Felicitas

Happiness

See FELICITAS

 

 

 

 

FELICISS

Felicissimo

Most Happy

 

 

 

 

 

FELICISSIMO

Felicissimo

Most Happy

 

 

 

 

 

FELICIT

Felicitas

Happiness

See FELICITAS

 

 

 

 

FELICITA

Felicitas

Happiness

See FELICITAS

 

 

 

 

FELICITAS

Felicitas

Happiness

Personified as a woman with a cornucopia and caduceus (winged rod w/ serpents)

 

 

 

 

FELICITATEM

Felicitas

Happiness

See FELICITAS

 

 

 

 

FELICITATIS

Felicitatis

[of] Happiness

 

 

 

 

 

FELIX

Felix

Happy (or Lucky)

See PF

 

 

 

 

FELTEMPREPARATIO

Felix Temp Reparatio

Happy Times are Restored

As in “Happy Days are Here Again!” image

 

 

 

 

FIDES

Fides

Faith or Confidence

 

 

 

 

 

FIL

Filius

Son

As in “Son of…”

 

 

 

 

FL

Flavius

Flavius

Name image

 

 

 

 

FLACILLA

Flacilla

Flacilla

Name, esp. of Aelia Flacilla

 

 

 

 

FLORIANVS

Florianus

Florian

Emperor 276

 

 

 

 

FLVICTOR

Flavius Victor

Flavius Victor

 

 

 

 

 

FOR

Fortuna

Fortune

 

 

 

 

 

FORT

Fortuna

Fortune

 

 

 

 

 

FORTVNA

Fortuna

Fortune

See FORTVNA REDVX

 

 

 

 

FORTVNAREDVX

Fortuna Redux

Fortune, the Restorer

As in "Fortune, who returns the Emperor to us”

 

 

 

 

FRATRES

Fratres

Brothers

 

 

 

 

 

FRVGIFERO

Frugifero

Fruitful

 

 

 

 

 

FRVGIFERO

Frugifero

Fruitful

 

 

 

 

 

FVLGERATORI

Fulgurator

Master of Lightning

One of Jupiter's epithets

 

 

 

 

FVND

Fundata

Founded

See FVNDATA

 

 

 

FVNDAT

Fundata

Founded

See FVNDATA

 

 

 

 

FVNDATA

Fundata

Founded

As in LAETIT FVNDATA "Joy is [well] Founded" or PAX FVNDATA "Peace is founded"

 

 

 

 

GALBA

Galba

Galba

Emperor 68-69

 

 

 

 

GAL

Galerius

Galerius

Emperor 305-311, also a forename

 

 

 

 

GALLAPLACIDIA

Galla Placidia

Galla Placidia

Mother of Valentinian III

 

 

 

 

GALLIAE

Galliae

The Gauls

 

 

 

 

 

GALLIENI

Gallienus

[of] Gallienus

Emperor 235-268

 

 

 

 

GALLIENVS

Gallienus

Gallienus

Emperor 235-268

 

 

 

 

GALVALERIA

Galeria Valeria

Galeria Valeria

Wife of Galerius

 

 

 

 

GEN

Genius

Spirit

See GENIO

 

 

 

 

GENIO

Genius

Spirit

As in "Spirit of the Roman People", personified as male

 

 

 

 

GERM

Germanicus

Conqueror of the Germans

 

 

 

 

 

GERMAN

Germanicus

Conqueror of the Germans

Also a name

 

 

 

 

GERMANICA

Germanica

Germany

 

 

 

 

 

GERMANICI

Germanici

The Germanicuses

i.e. Caligula and his father, who shared this name

 

 

 

 

GERMANICVS

Germanicus

Germanicus

Caligula 37-41, or his father.

 

 

 

 

GERMANICVS

Germanicus

Conqueror of the Germans

Also a name

 

 

 

 

GETA

Geta

Geta

Emperor 209-211

 

 

 

 

GLORIA

Gloria

Glory

C (with EXERCITVS or ROMANORVM) image

 

 

 

 

GLVCERIVS

Glycerius

Glycerius

Emperor 473-474

 

 

 

 

GORDIANVS

Gordianus

Gordian I, II, III

Emperors 238, 238, and 238-244

 

 

 

 

GOTHICO

Gothicus

[for/from the] Conqueror of the Goths

 

 

 

 

 

GRATA

Grata

Grata

Feminine Name

 

 

 

 

GRATIANVS

Gratianus

Gratian

Emperor 367-383

 

 

 

 

HADRIANO

Hadriano

[for/from] Hadrian

 

 

 

 

 

HADRIANVS

Hadrianus

Hadrian

Emperor 117-138

 

 

 

 

HANIBALLIANO

Haniballiano

[of/to] Hanniballianus

Son of Delmatius

 

 

 

 

HANIBALLIANVS

Haniballiano

Hanniballianus

Son of Delmatius

 

 

 

 

HELENA

Helena

Helena

Wife of Constantius I

 

 

 

 

HELENAE

Helenae

[of] Helena

Wife of Constantius I

 

 

 

 

HER

Herennius

Herennius

Emperor 251

 

 

 

 

HERETR

Herennius

Herennius

Emperor 251

 

 

 

 

HERETRVSCILLA

Etruscilla

Herennia Etruscilla

Wife of Trajan Decius

 

 

 

 

HERCVLI

Hercules

Hercules

Half-god hero, shown with a club, bow and lion skin

 

 

 

 

HILARITAS

Hilaritas

Rejoicing

Personified with a palm and a cornucopia

 

 

 

 

HONORIA

Honoria

Honoria

Sister of Valentinian III

 

 

 

 

HONORIVS

Honorius

Honorius

Emperor 393-343

 

 

 

 

HONOS

Honos

Honor

Personified as male with scepter & cornucopia

 

 

 

 

HOS

Hostilianus

Hostilian

Emperor 251

 

 

 

 

HOSTIL

Hostilianus

Hostilian

Emperor 251

 

 

 

 

HVM

Humanitas

Humanity

 

 

 

 

 

HVMANIS

Humanis

[to] Humans

 

 

 

 

 

I

Unum

One

Roman Numerals often indicate a number of years.

 

 

 

 

II

Duo

Two

Roman Numerals often indicate a number of years.

 

 

 

 

III

Terci

Three

Roman Numerals often indicate a number of years.

 

 

 

 

ILLVRICI

Illyriciani

An Adriatic People

 

 

 

 

 

ILLVRICIANI

Illyriciani

An Adriatic People

 

 

 

 

 

IMP

Imperator

Commander (or Emperor)

Pretty much synonymous with “Augustus.” image VC

 

 

 

 

IMPER

Imperator

Commander

See IMP

 

 

 

 

IMPERAT

Imperator

Commander

See IMP

 

 

 

 

IMPERATOR

Imperator

Commander

See IMP

 

 

 

 

IMPERATORIS

Imperator

[of the] Commander

See IMP

 

 

 

 

INDVLG

Indulgentia

Ingulgence

Often personified with a scepter and patera (ritual drinking bowl)

 

 

 

 

INDVLGENTIA

Indulgentia

Ingulgence

Often personified with a scepter and patera (ritual drinking bowl)

 

 

 

 

INV

Invictus

Invincible

image

 

 

 

 

INVICTO

Invictus

Invincible

 

 

 

 

 

IOV

Iuppiter Iovi

Jupiter